The State of Minnesota Public Education, 2014

A MINNCAN RESEARCH REPORT

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The State of MN Public Education

Preface

Every year thousands of young Minnesotans enroll for the first time in our public schools, filled with excitement and potential. From the bonds they build on the playground to the tools they learn in the classroom, the school experience plays a key role in their development and pathway into adulthood. As a state, we must ensure our schools provide a solid foundation for all kids—no matter their race, ethnicity or socioeconomic status. And we know that it’s possible because we’re seeing it happen in schools across the state every day.

Each year we publish the State of Minnesota Public Education report to better understand where we are today, and where we can place additional focus to make our schools all they can be. We pull together a wide range of data, from local details to national comparisons, and compile it into one easy-to-use resource.

What did we learn this year? In some areas, our students are better off today than they were a few years ago. Since 2011, fourth-grade math and reading scores for nearly all student groups have been moving in the right direction, and in 2014, Minnesota’s four-year high school graduation rate was the highest it’s been in five years.

But in other areas, progress remains slow. Even as graduation rates rise, college readiness remains a challenge, with 47 percent of community college students needing to take remedial courses. Moreover, startling opportunity gaps persist across race and ethnicity. On the 2014 Minnesota Comprehensive Assessments, for example, black fourth-graders trailed their white peers by 35 percentage points in math and reading. Latino fourth-graders didn’t fare much better, trailing white students by 32 points in math and 34 points in reading.

This report highlights gains and gaps, provides snapshot comparisons from a diverse sampling of states from across the nation to give a taste for where we stand and also reveals opportunities by pointing to some areas where concerted action might have a real impact. We must, for example, do even more to increase access to high-quality pre-K for our youngest learners, recruit and retain diverse, highly effective educators and increase academic growth and proficiency for students who are furthest behind. We hope that this report can be more than just a data snapshot, but a truly useful tool to guide the policy decisions and investments we make as a state.

We invite you to explore our fourth annual State of Minnesota Public Education report, and use the findings both to celebrate our students’ progress and engage in the conversation about what we can do better. We’re eager to hear what opportunities you see to make great public schools available to all Minnesota students. By working together we can build a brighter future for Minnesota’s kids.

The students

Minnesota is home to over 2,000 public schools that serve a diverse population of nearly 850,000 students. Learn more about Minnesota public school students, including their demographic breakdown and the kinds of schools they attend.

Who we’re educating

Demographic breakdown1

Where our students attend school2

Percentage of students fully ready for kindergarten, 20103

Percentage of students reaching 75 percent proficiency standard4

The system

A lot goes into building an effective public school system, from strong early learning opportunities, to a vibrant teacher talent pipeline, to ample and equitable investment across our schools. This section uses data to highlight where we are and describes the key policies that underlie the system.

Who’s teaching

Minnesota teachers by the numbers, 2013–2014

Demographic breakdown5

Where we need more teachers

Areas of teacher shortage, 20126

Shortage area Number of special permissions*
requested to address shortages,
2011–2012
Emotional behavior disorders 294
Learning disabilities 265
Developmental disabilities 145
Early childhood special education 91
English as a second language 86
Mathematics 78
School psychologist 66
Spanish 64
Physics 50
Developmental/adapted physical education 45
Chemistry 43
  Emotional behavior disorders Learning disabilities Developmental disabilities Early childhood special education English as a second language Mathematics School psychologist Spanish Physics Developmental/adapted physical education Chemistry
Shortage area 294 265 145 91 86 78 66 64 50 45 43

*Districts must request special permission to hire a teacher who lacks the necessary license to teach a given subject area and grade level.

Minnesota School Policies

Teacher staffing policies

Teacher evaluation

In 2011, Minnesota passed legislation requiring all districts to establish teacher evaluation systems. Several districts piloted evaluation systems during the 2013-2014 school year, and all districts are required to have an evaluation system fully in place beginning in the 2014-2015 school year.7 District evaluation models must meet certain criteria, including a professional review every three years, an individual growth and development plan, a peer review process and at least one summative evaluation. Probationary teachers must receive at least three written evaluations during each probationary year. All teacher evaluations must be based on professional teaching standards, student engagement and connection data and state and local measures of student learning growth. These measures of student learning growth must comprise 35 percent of the overall evaluation result.8

If a school board and local teachers’ union cannot agree upon a district evaluation model, the district must adopt the default state evaluation model (districts may also choose to adopt the state model initially).9 Under the state model, 45 percent of a teacher’s evaluation score is determined by observations of teacher practice in four domains: planning, instruction, environment and professionalism. Thirty-five percent is determined by multiple measures of student achievement growth. The remaining 20 percent is determined by measures of student engagement, including results from a student survey. Based on these measures, teachers receive a summative rating of Exemplary, Effective, Development Needed or Unsatisfactory.10

Teachers who do not meet professional teaching standards during the district evaluation process must receive support to improve. Teachers who do not make adequate progress through the teacher improvement process must be disciplined, and disciplinary measures may include a last chance warning, termination, discharge, nonrenewal, transfer to a different position, a leave of absence or other discipline deemed appropriate by a school administrator. 11

Teacher tenure

Minnesota teachers are awarded tenure after a three-year probationary period. Districts are not required to consider evidence of effectiveness in the classroom when making tenure decisions.12

During reductions in force, Minnesota requires districts to lay off teachers in inverse order of seniority, with the least senior teachers laid off first. Minnesota is one of eleven states that require districts to use such a layoff policy.13

Teacher compensation

In Minnesota, there is no statewide salary schedule, and districts establish teacher compensation policies. However, Minnesota created a voluntary performance pay initiative in 2005: Quality Compensation for Teachers, or Q Comp. Q Comp supports teacher development by providing incentives for taking on leadership roles, increasing student achievement and more. Districts interested in participating must submit their plan to the state for approval, and plans must include five core components: career ladder/advancement options, job-embedded professional development, teacher evaluation, performance pay and an alternative salary schedule. Approved districts receive up to $260 per student to implement the plan. Currently, 60 school districts and 62 charter schools participate in Q Comp. 15

Minnesota ranked 17th nationally in average annual public school teacher salary in 2012-2013.16

Teacher certification

To become certified to teach in Minnesota, candidates must hold a bachelor’s degree, complete an approved program of study and pass the required certification test for their subject area and grade level.17 Evaluations of teacher effectiveness are not considered in licensure renewal decisions.18

Minnesota passed an alternative certification law in 2011, allowing the implementation of new models of teacher training. The Board of Teaching established guidelines for program approval, including requirements that candidates for program admission have a bachelor’s degree and a 3.0 GPA, and that students complete a minimum of 200 instructional hours, participate in a student teaching program and pass rigorous content and pedagogy exams.19 The Board of Teaching approved Minnesota’s first alternative certification program in June 2014.20

Public charter school policies21

Authorizers

Minnesota has a multitude of charter school authorizers, including local school boards, intermediate school boards, cooperatives, nonprofit organizations, private colleges, public postsecondary institutions and single-purpose authorizers that are charitable non-sectarian entities created just to authorize charter schools. The state commissioner of education approves charter authorizers upon the completion of a comprehensive application process.

Authorizers must submit annual reports to the state commissioner, and authorizer performance is reviewed at least every five years.

Accountability

Charter schools must have a written contract, signed by the authorizer and the school’s board of directors. The contract must outline how the school will meet its intended purpose, the outcomes it will report to demonstrate how it is fulfilling its mission and the necessary conditions for contract renewal. An initial contract may last for up to five years.

Authorizers are required to outline, in writing for state commissioner approval, their procedures for contract renewal or termination.

Before renewal, authorizers must provide a written evaluation of the school. If renewed, the new contract term can last for up to five years. If a contract is not renewed, the authorizer must give written notification of the grounds for non-renewal, and the school may request an informal hearing.

Facilities

Charter schools are prohibited from using state funds to purchase land or buildings, but may do so with non-state funds. The law allows charter schools to “lease space from a public or private owner or from a private nonprofit, nonsectarian, nonprofit, and with approval of the state department of education, from other sectarian organizations.” Charter schools do have access to some lease aid (90 percent of lease costs), or rental financial assistance, for the 2015 fiscal year.

There is no state loan or grant program for charter schools and no right of first refusal, which allows charter schools to purchase or lease at or below market value closed, underused or unused public school property. It is also illegal for authorizers to lease facilities to schools that they authorize.

Funding

By law, charter schools are supposed to receive the same general revenue per pupil from the state as other schools, however they only receive the transportation portion of the allotment if the schools provide transportation. Charter schools also have equal access to applicable state categorical funding, or funds designated for specific purposes, such as Q Comp.

However, according to a recent study, when all funding streams are considered, the average Minnesota charter school receives $11,429 per pupil, compared to the average district school’s $12,476 (8.4 percent less).22

Minnesota and the Common Core State Standards23

More than 40 states have adopted the Common Core State Standards in English and math, and one state—Minnesota—has adopted the English standards only.

Pre-K access

Minnesota has over 1,600 Parent Aware rated pre-K programs—programs that have received a rating measuring their quality.24 About 5,000 students now have access to early learning scholarships to attend these highly-rated programs.25 Still, too few of our youngest students have access to quality pre-K education. In recent rankings based on access, Minnesota currently ranks 40th out of 41 states that offer public pre-K for four-year-olds, with only one percent enrolled in state-funded public pre-K programs.

A glimpse at preschool access in Minnesota

National Institute of Early Education Research: The State of Preschool, 201326

1,813
Total state-funded program enrollment
9,422
Number of students enrolled in federally-funded
Head Start programs
1%
Percentage of 3-year-olds enrolled in public pre-K programs
6%
Percentage of 3-year-olds enrolled in Head Start programs
23/27
National Institute for Early Education Research’s access ranking for 3-year-olds
1%
Percentage of 4-year-olds enrolled in public pre-K programs
8%
Percentage of 4-year-olds enrolled in Head Start programs
40/41
National Institute for Early Education Research’s access ranking for 4-year-olds

Charter School Geography

Minnesota areas and the number of charter schools they have27

The Cost

Per–pupil spending, 201228

How does Minnesota compare? We selected a diverse sampling of states from across the nation to give a taste for where we stand.

How per–pupil funding was allocated in 201229

Per–pupil spending, select districts, 2012–201330–31

How the system is working

We know who our students are and what kind of schools they attend. But how is the school system working for students? Take a journey through Minnesota’s K-12 system and find out!

elementary school

Over the last decade, student achievement has improved across the board for Minnesota’s elementary school students on the NAEP, or the Nation’s Report Card.32 The most dramatic improvements have been in math, where the proficiency rate for fourth-grade black students increased by 16 percentage points and Asian students by 25 percentage points between 2003 and 2013.

Despite these impressive gains, too many of our students continue to fall behind early in their school careers. On the most recent MCA reading exams, only 55 percent of all fourth-graders scored proficient or above, and there were great disparities between white students and students of color. Only 29 percent of black fourth-graders and 30 percent of Latino fourth-graders met or exceeded the proficiency benchmark, compared to 64 percent of their white peers.

MCA proficiency, 4th grade33

Percentage of MN 4th-graders proficient or advanced, 2014

NAEP proficiency, 4th grade34–35

Percentage of MN 4th-graders proficient or advanced on the Nation's Report Card, 2013

District comparison36–38

Percentage of MN 4th-graders proficient or advanced on the MCA, 2014

National Comparison39

Percentage of 4th-graders proficient or advanced on the Nation's Report Card, 2013

  National Colorado Louisiana Massachusetts Minnesota North Carolina Wisconsin
 
Math 41 50 26 58 59 45 47
Reading 34 41 23 47 41 35 35
  Math Reading
National 41 34
Colorado 50 41
Louisiana 26 23
Massachusetts 58 47
Minnesota 59 41
North Carolina 45 35
Wisconsin 47 35

Nation's Report Card trends41–42

Percentage of MN 4th-graders proficient or advanced on the Nation's Report Card in 2013, Math and Reading

Proficiency gaps

A proficiency gap represents the difference in proficiency rates between two groups of students. In Minnesota, for example, a much higher proportion of white students score proficient or advanced on state and national tests compared to their black peers. MinnCAN works to tackle such gaps head-on and increase academic achievement for all students.

MCA proficiency gaps, 4th grade43

The difference in proficiency rates between white students and students of color, 2014 (in percentage points)

Nation's report card proficiency gap, Minnesota, 4th grade44

The difference in proficiency rates between white students and students of color, and low-income students and non-low-income students (in percentage points)

middle school

The opportunity gaps that emerge in elementary school persist into middle school. There was more than a 30 percentage point gap in proficiency between black, Latino and Native American eighth-graders and their white peers taking the MCA math assessment, and a similar trend for reading. To set students up for success in high school, college and careers, we must ensure that all students are on track in middle school.

MCA proficiency, 8th grade45

Percentage of MN 8th-graders proficient or advanced, 2014

NAEP proficiency, 8th grade46–47

Percentage of MN 8th-graders proficient or advanced on the Nation's Report Card, 2013

District comparison48–50

Percentage of MN 8th-graders proficient or advanced on the MCA, 2014

National Comparison51

Percentage of 8th-graders proficient or advanced on the Nation's Report Card, 2013

  National Colorado Louisiana Massachusetts Minnesota North Carolina Wisconsin
 
Math 34 42 21 55 47 36 40
Reading 34 40 24 48 41 33 36
  Math Reading
National 34 34
Colorado 42 40
Louisiana 21 24
Massachusetts 55 48
Minnesota 47 41
North Carolina 36 33
Wisconsin 40 36

Nation's Report Card trends53

Percentage of MN 8th-graders proficient or advanced on the Nation's Report Card in 2013, Math and Reading

MCA proficiency gaps, 8th grade54

The difference in proficiency rates between white students and students of color (in percentage points), 2014

Nation's report card proficiency gap, Minnesota, 8th grade55

The difference in proficiency rates between white students and students of color, and low-income students and non-low-income students (in percentage points)

high school

Opportunity gaps continue to persist as students move on to high school. On the 2014 MCAs, there was more than a 30 percentage point proficiency gap between black, Latino and Native American students and their white peers in both reading and math. Graduation rates tell a similar story: 85 percent of white students in the 2009 cohort graduated in four years, compared to only 58 percent of black students, 59 percent of Latino students and 50 percent of Native American students.

MCA proficiency, high school56

Percentage of MN high school students proficient or advanced, 2014

District comparison57–59

Percentage of MN high school students proficient or advanced on the MCA, 2014

MCA proficiency gap, high school60

The difference in proficiency rates between white students and students of color (in percentage points), 2014

4–year cohort graduation rate61

Percentage of students from the class of 2013 who graduated on time

Percentage of students who graduated, by year62

6–year cohort graduation rate63

Percentage of students in the class of 2011 who graduated in 2011, 2012 or 2013

GED pass rates, 201264

Percentage of GED test-takers who passed

Preparing students for success after high school

Minnesota PSEO (Postsecondary Enrollment Options)65 , 2014–201566

Minnesota PSEO participation by high school grade, 2010–201167

After graduation

The ultimate goal of Minnesota’s public school system is to prepare all students to thrive beyond the K-12 classroom walls. To find out if we’re meeting that goal, we look at Minnesota students’ performance on college readiness exams, college graduation rates, expected lifetime earnings and more.

college readiness exams

The transition from high school to college is critical. Some students have a head start, thanks to PSEO and AP tests. Nonetheless, AP passage rates vary dramatically across race, and ACT test scores demonstrate a similar readiness gap. In 2014, 44 percent of white students who took the ACT met all four college readiness benchmarks, more than four times the rate of black students.

Advanced Placement exams68–70

Percentage of graduates leaving high school having taken an AP exam

Percentage of graduates scoring 3+ on an AP exam at any point in high school

Advanced placement exams, National Comparison71

Percentage of the class of 2013 scoring a 3 or higher on an Advanced Placement Exam in high school

ACT Scores72

Percentage of Minnesota ACT takers meeting college readiness benchmarks, 2014, Demographic breakdown

College completion

While the overall proportion of Minnesota students who graduate on time from four-year public universities is close to the national average, we’re still trailing many other states. And for students of color, on-time graduation rates—at both two- and four-year colleges—are far lower than those of their white peers.

Graduation rate73–75

How Minnesota Compares76

College remediation rates, class of 201277

Percentage of students requiring developmental coursework

EXPECTED EARNINGS & JOBS

In Minnesota those with a bachelor’s degree take home an annual salary that is, on average, more than double those who only have a high school diploma.

Average yearly earnings and educational attainment in Minnesota78

Data from 2011 Census

  Did not complete high school High school graduate Some college Bachelor's degree and above
$ $9,017 $27,648 $33,411 $59,982
  $
Did not complete high school $9,017
High school graduate $27,648
Some college $33,411
Bachelor's degree and above $59,982

U.S. average lifetime earnings and educational attainment, 200879

Minnesota job openings80

By skill level, 2010-2020 (projected)

Conclusion

This report makes one thing clear: we must do more to help all students reach their full potential, in school and beyond. The good news is that we have more than just data. We have success stories and best practices from changing-the-odds public schools across the state, and we have educators, school administrators and policymakers dedicated to passing and implementing commonsense policies to increase academic achievement for all students. As a state, we have a long tradition of innovation and excellence and a deep, collective, unwavering commitment to our kids.

There’s just one thing we still need to take swift and comprehensive action to improve our schools: you. We need you to explore and share this report, see that meaningful gains are possible and understand that our lingering gaps must be tackled head on. We hope you will join us in our deep belief that all kids can succeed, that great schools can be the agents of change, and that it’s in our reach for the kids of today.

endnotes

  1. “Minnesota Education Statistics Summary,” Minnesota Department of Education, accessed Dec. 1, 2014, 2014, http://w20.education.state.mn.us/MDEAnalytics/Summary.jsp.
  2. “Minnesota Education Statistics Summary,” Minnesota Department of Education, accessed Dec. 1, 2014, http://w20.education.state.mn.us/MDEAnalytics/Summary.jsp.
  3. “Minnesota School Readiness Study: Developmental Assessment at kindergarten Entrance,” Minnesota Department of Education, Appendix B, accessed June 6, 2014, http://www.education.state.mn.us/mdeprod/idcplg?IdcService=GET_FILE&dDocName=005512&RevisionSelectionMethod=latestReleased&Rendition=primary.
  4. Proficient – Indicating the child can reliably and consistently demonstrate the skill, knowledge, behavior or accomplishment indicating he/she is fully ready for kindergarten across several performance metrics. Students who meet 75 percent of the total indicators of kindergarten readiness in the report are considered proficient and ready for kindergarten.
  5. “Staff: Licensed Staff—2013-14 Demographics—Teachers by School,” Minnesota Department of Education, accessed September 9, 2014. http://w20.education.state.mn.us/MDEAnalytics/Data.jsp.
  6. “Teacher Supply and Demand: Fiscal Year 2013 Report to the Legislature,” Minnesota Department of Education, p. 2, accessed September 9, 2014, http://education.state.mn.us/MDE/mdeprod/groups/communications/documents/basic/050407.pdf.
  7. 2011 Minnesota Session Laws, Chapter 11—H.F. No. 26, accessed July 11, 2014, https://www.revisor.mn.gov/laws/?doctype=Chapter&year=2011&type=1&id=11.
  8. Minn. Stat. § 122A.40, Subd. 8, accessed September 30, 2014, https://www.revisor.mn.gov/laws/?id=272&year=2014&type=0#laws.3.14.0.
  9. Minn. Stat. § 122A.40, Subd. 8.
  10. “The Teacher Development, Evaluation, and Peer Support Model: Implementation Handbook,” Minnesota Department of Education (August 2013), accessed September 30, 2014, http://education.state.mn.us/MDE/EdExc/EducEval/index.html (see link under “Winter Information Session” that reads STATE TEACHER MODEL_Implementation Handbook).
  11. Minn. Stat. § 122A.40, Subd. 8.
  12. National Council on Teacher Quality “2013 State Teacher Policy Yearbook: Minnesota,” p. 88, accessed July 11, 2014, http://www.nctq.org/dmsView/2013_State_Teacher_Policy_Yearbook_Minnesota_NCTQ_Report.
  13. “Minnesota,” savegreatteachers.com (StudentsFirst), accessed July 11, 2014, http://savegreatteachers.com/.
  14. National Council on Teacher Quality “2013 State Teacher Policy Yearbook: Minnesota,” p. 111, accessed July 11, 2014, http://www.nctq.org/dmsView/2013_State_Teacher_Policy_Yearbook_Minnesota_NCTQ_Report.
  15. “Q Comp,” Minnesota Department of Education, accessed July 11, 2014, http://education.state.mn.us/MDE/SchSup/QComp/.
  16. “Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Selected years, 1969-70 through 2012-13 (Table 211.60),” National Center for Education Statistics: Digest of Education Statistics, 2013 Tables and Figures, accessed July 11, 2014, http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d13/tables/dt13_211.60.asp.
  17. “Become a Teacher in Minnesota,” Certification Map, accessed July 11, 2014, http://certificationmap.com/states/minnesota-teacher-certification/#req.
  18. “State of the States 2013: Connect the Dots: Using evaluations of teacher effectiveness to inform policy and practice,” National Council on Teacher Quality, p. 20, accessed July 11, 2014, http://www.nctq.org/dmsView/State_of_the_States_2013_Using_Teacher_Evaluations_NCTQ_Report.
  19. “Alternative Pathways to Teacher Licensing,” Minnesota Department of Education, accessed July 11., 2014, http://mn.gov/elicense/licenses/licensedetail.jsp?URI=tcm:29-10252-16&CT_URI=tcm:29-117-32.
  20. “U of M alternative teacher preparation program approved by Minnesota State Board of Teaching,” University of Minnesota (June 13, 2014), accessed July 11, 2014, http://discover.umn.edu/news/campus-community/u-m-alternative-teacher-preparation-program-approved-minnesota-state-board.
  1. “Measuring up to the Model,” National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, accessed July 16, 2014, http://www.publiccharters.org/get-the-facts/law-database/states/MN/.
  2. May, Jay F.,“Charter School Funding: Inequity Expands, Minnesota Profile (April 2014),” University of Arkansas, accessed July 16, 2014, http://www.uaedreform.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/charter-funding-inequity-expands-mn.pdf.
  3. “English Language Arts,” Minnesota Department of Education, accessed July 16, 2014, http://education.state.mn.us/MDE/EdExc/StanCurri/K-12AcademicStandards/LangArts/index.html; “Standards in Your State,” Common Core State Standards Initiative, accessed July 16, 2014, http://www.corestandards.org/standards-in-your-state/.
  4. “Accessing Quality Checklist,” Parent Aware, accessed September 9, 2014, http://parentaware.org/learn/.
  5. “Early Learning Scholarships Program,” Minnesota Department of Education, accessed September 19, 2014, http://education.state.mn.us/MDE/StuSuc/EarlyLearn/EarlyLearnScholarProg/index.html.
  6. “The State of Preschool 2013,” The National Institute for Early Education Research, pp. 80-81, accessed September 9, 2014, http://nieer.org/sites/nieer/files/yearbook2013.pdf.
  7. “A Primer on Minnesota Charter Schools,” MN Association of Charter Schools, accessed September 29, 2014, http://www.mncharterschools.org/_uls/resources/A_Primer_on_Minnesota_Charter_Schools.pdf.
  8. “Public Education Finances 2012,” United States Census Bureau, p. 8, accessed September 9, 2014, http://www2.census.gov/govs/school/12f33pub.pdf.
  9. “Public Education Finances 2012,” United States Census Bureau, p. 8, accessed September 9, 2014, http://www2.census.gov/govs/school/12f33pub.pdf.
  10. “Consolidated Financial Report,” Minnesota Department of Education, accessed October 20, 2014, http://w20.education.state.mn.us/MDEAnalytics/Data.jsp. Total expenditures are contained in the “Total” section at the bottom of each report (the figure is labeled “Total Uses”).
  11. “Data Reports and Analytics,” Minnesota Department of Education, accessed October 20, 2014, http://w20.education.state.mn.us/MDEAnalytics/Data.jsp. To access the Excel file, click the “Student” link under the “Student Data” heading. On the next page, choose the category “Average Daily Membership.”
  12. The Nation’s Report Card is a national exam given by the National Center for Education Statistics that serves as a way to compare academic proficiency across states.
  13. “Minnesota Report Card,” Minnesota Department of Education, accessed September 9, 2014, http://rc.education.state.mn.us/#.
  14. “Mathematics 2013 State Snapshot Report: Minnesota Grade 4 Public Schools,” The Nation’s Report Card, accessed September 9, 2014, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/subject/publications/stt2013/pdf/2014465MN4.pdf.
  15. “Reading 2013 State Snapshot Report: Minnesota Grade 4 Public Schools,” The Nation’s Report Card, accessed September 9, 2014, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/subject/publications/stt2013/pdf/2014464MN4.pdf.
  16. “Minnesota Report Card,” Minnesota Department of Education, accessed September 9, 2014, http://rc.education.state.mn.us/#.
  17. “Minnesota Report Card,” Minnesota Department of Education, accessed September 9, 2014, http://rc.education.state.mn.us/#.
  18. “Minnesota Report Card,” Minnesota Department of Education, accessed September 9, 2014, http://rc.education.state.mn.us/#.
  19. “NAEP Data Explorer,” National Center for Education Statistics, accessed September 9, 2014, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/naepdata/dataset.aspx.
  1. “NAEP Data Explorer,” National Center for Education Statistics, accessed September 9, 2014, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/naepdata/dataset.aspx.
  2. “NAEP Data Explorer,” National Center for Education Statistics, accessed September 9, 2014, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/naepdata/dataset.aspx.
  3. “Minnesota Report Card,” Minnesota Department of Education, accessed September 9, 2014, http://rc.education.state.mn.us/#.
  4. “NAEP Data Explorer,” National Center for Education Statistics, accessed September 9, 2014, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/naepdata/dataset.aspx.
  5. “Minnesota Report Card,” Minnesota Department of Education, accessed September 9, 2014, http://rc.education.state.mn.us/#.
  6. “Mathematics 2013 State Snapshot Report: Minnesota Grade 8 Public Schools,” The Nation’s Report Card, accessed September 9, 2014, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/subject/publications/stt2013/pdf/2014465MN8.pdf.
  7. “Reading 2013 State Snapshot Report: Minnesota Grade 8 Public Schools,” The Nation’s Report Card, accessed September 9, 2014, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/subject/publications/stt2013/pdf/2014464MN8.pdf.
  8. “Minnesota Report Card,” Minnesota Department of Education, accessed September 9, 2014, http://rc.education.state.mn.us/#.
  9. “Minnesota Report Card,” Minnesota Department of Education, accessed September 9, 2014, http://rc.education.state.mn.us/#.
  10. “Minnesota Report Card,” Minnesota Department of Education, accessed September 9, 2014, http://rc.education.state.mn.us/#.
  11. “NAEP Data Explorer,” National Center for Education Statistics, accessed September 9, 2014, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/naepdata/dataset.aspx.
  12. “NAEP Data Explorer,” National Center for Education Statistics, accessed September 9, 2014, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/naepdata/dataset.aspx.
  13. “Minnesota Report Card,” Minnesota Department of Education, accessed September 9, 2014, http://rc.education.state.mn.us/#.
  14. “NAEP Data Explorer,” National Center for Education Statistics, accessed September 9, 2014, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/naepdata/dataset.aspx.
  15. “Minnesota Report Card,” Minnesota Department of Education, accessed September 9, 2014, http://rc.education.state.mn.us/#
  16. “Minnesota Report Card,” Minnesota Department of Education, accessed September 9, 2014, http://rc.education.state.mn.us/#
  17. “Minnesota Report Card,” Minnesota Department of Education, accessed September 9, 2014, http://rc.education.state.mn.us/#
  18. “Minnesota Report Card,” Minnesota Department of Education, accessed September 9, 2014, http://rc.education.state.mn.us/#
  19. “Minnesota Report Card,” Minnesota Department of Education, accessed September 9, 2014, http://rc.education.state.mn.us/#
  20. “Minnesota Report Card,” Minnesota Department of Education, accessed September 9, 2014, http://rc.education.state.mn.us/#
  21. “Minnesota Report Card,” Minnesota Department of Education, accessed September 9, 2014, http://rc.education.state.mn.us/#
  22. “2012-2013 Graduates,” Minnesota Department of Education, accessed September 9, 2014, http://w20.education.state.mn.us/MDEAnalytics/Data.jsp.
  1. “2012 Annual Statistical Report on the GED Test,” GED Testing Service, p. 71, accessed September 9, 2014, http://www.gedtestingservice.com/uploads/files/8d4558324628dfcf1011dc738acca6eb.pdf.
  2. Postsecondary Enrollment Options (PSEO) is a program that allows 10th-, 11th- and 12th-grade students to earn college credit while still in high school, through enrollment in and successful completion of college-level courses. With traditional PSEO, these courses are generally offered on the campus of the postsecondary institution; some courses are offered online.
  3. “Post-Secondary Enrollment Options (PSEO),” Minnesota Department of Education, accessed September 9, 2014, http://education.state.mn.us/MDE/StuSuc/CollReadi/PSEO/040787.
  4. “Post-Secondary Enrollment Options,” Minnesota Office of Higher Education, accessed September 29, 2014, http://www.ohe.state.mn.us/mPg.cfm?pageID=797.
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